Female Involvement in Crime Growing: From the Bureau of Justice Statistics: An estimated 80 percent of the women in state prisons were either recidivists or had a current conviction for violence.
These sources may yield different crime rates and trends. Each source has advantages and drawbacks, and each alone gives an incomplete picture of crime. In this section, we discuss these sources of data and their strengths and weaknesses.
Arrest Data A common way of measuring crime is to use the Uniform Crime Reports UCRwhich are compiled from data on crimes known to the police and on arrests that are reported annually to the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI by police agencies around the country.
Data have been collected by the FBI sinceallowing the study of crime and arrest trends over time. The UCR provide crime counts for the United States as a whole, as well as for regions, states, counties, cities, and towns.
In addition, the UCR provide data on, among other things, crimes known to the police, crimes cleared by arrest, and characteristics of persons arrested.
However, UCR reporting is voluntary, and the total number of reporting police agencies varies from year to year. The accuracy and completeness of the data are affected by the voluntary nature of UCR reporting Maltz, In some years, data from one or more entire states have been unavailable.
For example, from tono usable data were obtained from either Florida or Kentucky Federal Bureau of Investigation, Coverage within states also varies from year to year. The FBI imputes information when none has been reported.
Because many of the tables in the published UCR, including the breakdown by age, are based on whichever agencies report in a given year and not on a nationally representative sample, caution must be used in making generalizations to all young people in the United States based on UCR data.
This is particularly true with regard to analyses regarding race, because the racial makeup of the areas covered by reporting agencies may not reflect the racial makeup of the country.
Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. The National Academies Press. The crime index includes the violent offenses of murder and nonnegligent homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and the property offenses of burglary, larceny theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
There are drawbacks to using arrest data as a measure of crime. Arrest statistics do not reflect the number of different people arrested each year, because an unknown number of people may be arrested more than once in a year.
For some crimes, no arrests are made. For others, there may be multiple arrests. Furthermore, not everyone who is arrested has committed the crime for which he or she was arrested.
Arrests also depend on a number of factors other than overall crime levels, including policies of particular police agencies, the cooperation of victims, the skill of the perpetrator, and the age, sex, race, and social class of the suspect Cook and Laub, ; McCord, c.
Nor should arrest statistics be confused with the number of crimes committed, because in some cases, the arrest of one person may account for a series of crimes, and in others several people may be arrested for one crime.
This is particularly true for young people, who are more likely than adults to commit crimes in a group McCord, ; Reiss, ; Reiss and Farrington, ; Zimring, Snyder contends that this tendency to offend in groups makes arrest statistics an inappropriate measure of the relative proportion of crime attributed to young people.
Checking on Snyder's position, McCord and Conway analyzed a random sample of juvenile offenders in Philadelphia. They found that the number of crimes accounted for by juveniles would be reduced by approximately 40 percent with an adjustment for co-offending.
Rather, arrest statistics measure the flow of young people into the juvenile justice system or the criminal justice system. For this reason, the number of crimes known to police is often a preferred measure of crime Cook and Laub, The UCR provide information on all crimes known to reporting police agencies, whether or not an arrest has been made.
There is no information on age of the perpetrator, however, in the data on crimes known to police; thus even if they are a more accurate crime measure, the number of crimes known to police cannot be used to analyze juvenile crime.Juvenile Delinquency Prevention.
Juvenile Delinquency Prevention-Annotated Bibliography. Delinquency Prevention What Works and What Doesn't.
This bibliography contains annotations of selected works dealing with delinquency prevention from the mid s to the present. research on female delinquency and the juvenile justice system's response to female delinquency. The inadequacies and persistence of historical theories and the conceptual.
Suggested Citation:"Patterns and Trends in Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice."Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile attheheels.comgton, DC: The National Academies Press.
doi: / Aug 17, · RAND's research on juvenile delinquency includes populations from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds and features studies related to crime and juvenile justice, at-risk populations, violence, bullying, substance abuse prevention and treatment, and adolescent mental health.
Juvenile delinquency is a massive and growing individual while others view delinquency as a macra level function of society.4 Many of the theories that will be presented will be applicable to at least some instances of crime and delinquency in society. The Effects of Family Structure on Juvenile Delinquency Alisha B.
Parks high rate of divorce and the proliferation of complex stepfamilies but also to increasing rates of nonmarital childbearing and cohabitation (Demuth & Brown, ). in terms of levels of well-being and delinquency. Similar to the research by Manning and Lamb (