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History[ edit ] The conceptual roots for social cognitive theory come from Edwin B. Holt and Harold Chapman Brown 's book theorizing that all animal action is based on fulfilling the psychological needs of "feeling, emotion, and desire". The most notable component of this theory is that it predicted a person cannot learn to imitate until they are imitated.
Miller and John Dollard presented their book with a revision of Holt's social learning and imitation theory. They argued four factors contribute to learning: One driver is social motivation, which includes imitativeness, the process of matching an act to an appropriate cue of where and when to perform the act.
A behavior is imitated depending on whether the model receives a positive or negative response consequences.
By imitating these observed actions the individual observer would solidify that learned action and would be rewarded with positive reinforcement. The proposition of social learning was expanded upon and theorized by Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura.
Bandura, along with his students and colleagues conducted a series of studies, known as the Bobo doll experimentin and to find out why and when children display aggressive behaviors. These studies demonstrated the value of modeling for acquiring novel behaviors.
These studies helped Bandura publish his seminal article and book in that expanded on the idea of how behavior is acquired, and thus built from Miller and Dollard's research.
Self-efficacy comes from four sources: He called the new theory social cognitive theory. Bandura changed the name to emphasize the major role cognition plays in encoding and performing behaviors. In this book, Bandura argued that human behavior is caused by personal, behavioral, and environmental influences.
The theory shows how new behavior diffuses through society by psychosocial factors governing acquisition and adoption of the behavior. Current status[ edit ] Social Cognitive Theory originated in psychology, but based on an unofficial November Google Scholar search, only 2 percent of articles published on SCT are in the pure psychology field.
About 20 percent of articles are from Education and 16 percent from Business. The majority of current research in Health Psychology focuses on testing SCT in behavioral change campaigns as opposed to expanding on the theory.
Born inBandura is still influencing the world with expansions of SCT. His recent work, published Mayfocuses on how SCT impacts areas of both health and population in relation to climate change. On health, Bandura writes that currently there is little incentive for doctors to write prescriptions for healthy behavior, but he believes the cost of fixing health problems start to outweigh the benefits of being healthy.
Bandura argues that we are on the cusp of moving from a disease model focusing on people with problems to a health model focusing on people being healthy and SCT is the theory that should be used to further a healthy society. Specifically on Population, Bandura states that population growth is a global crisis because of its correlation with depletion and degradation of our planet's resources.
Bandura argues that SCT should be used to increase birth control use, reduce gender inequality through education, and to model environmental conservation to improve the state of the planet.
Overview[ edit ] Social cognitive theory is a learning theory based on the idea that people learn by observing others. These learned behaviors can be central to one's personality. While social psychologists agree that the environment one grows up in contributes to behavior, the individual person and therefore cognition is just as important.
People learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition acting as primary factors that influence development in a reciprocal triadic relationship. Each behavior witnessed can change a person's way of thinking cognition. Similarly, the environment one is raised in may influence later behaviors.
For example, a caregiver's mindset also cognition determines the environment in which their children are raised. The core concepts of this theory are explained by Bandura through a schematization of triadic reciprocal causation,  The schema shows how the reproduction of an observed behavior is influenced by the interaction of the following three determinants: Whether the individual has high or low self-efficacy toward the behavior i.As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
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