Works in the dark romantic spirit were influenced by Transcendentalism, but did not entirely embrace the ideas of Transcendentalism. Such works are notably less optimistic than Transcendental texts about mankind, nature, and divinity. Origin The term dark romanticism comes from both the pessimistic nature of the subgenre's literature and the influence it derives from the earlier Romantic literary movement. Dark Romanticism's birth, however, was a mid-nineteenth-century reaction to the American Transcendental movement.
Visit Website Transcendentalists advocated the idea of a personal knowledge of God, believing that no intermediary was needed for spiritual insight.
They embraced idealism, focusing on nature and opposing materialism. By the s, literature began to appear that bound the Transcendentalist ideas together in a cohesive way and marked the beginnings of a more organized movement.
The purpose was to follow up on correspondence between Hodge and Emerson and to talk about the state of Unitarianism and what they could do about it. This was a meeting of a much larger group that included many Unitarian ministers, intellectuals, writers and reformers.
The only rule the meetings followed was that no one would be allowed to attend if their presence prevented the group from discussing a topic.
This group ceased to meet inbut were involved in the publication The Dial, at first helmed by member and pioneering feminist Margaret Fullerand later by Emerson, with the mission of addressing Transcendentalist thought and concerns. After its demise inThoreau moved to Walden Pond where he wrote his most famous work, Walden; or, Life in the Woods.
Brook Farm Inspired by different utopian groups like the Shakers, members of the Transcendental Club were interested in forming a commune to put their ideas to the test. Ina small group of them, including author Nathaniel Hawthornemoved to a property named Brook Farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts.
The venture, helmed by George Ripley, was covered in the pages of The Dial as an idyllic one that involved farm work by day and creative work by candlelight at night. Emerson never joined the farm.
Thoreau refused to join as well, finding the entire idea unappealing.
Margaret Fuller visited but felt the farm was destined for failure. The farm was run by members buying shares for life-long membership, guaranteeing an annual return on their investment, and allowing members who could not afford a share to compensate with work. As farmers, they were fledglings, but Hawthorne, in particular, was thrilled by the physicality of farming life.
The farm proved successful enough that in its first year, members had to build new homes on the property to house everyone.
There were over residents. Infollowing a restructuring that brought further growth, the commune began to fall into a slow decline, with members becoming disillusioned by its mission, as well as financial challenges and other problems, and squabbling amongst themselves.
Bythis particular Transcendentalist experiment was finished. Transcendentalism Fades Out As the s arrived, Transcendentalism is considered to have lost some of its influence, particularly following the untimely death of Margaret Fuller in an shipwreck.
Though its members remained active in the public eye—notably Emerson, Thoreau and others in their public opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act of —following the failure of Brook Farm, it never again materialized as a cohesive group.I couldn't figure out what the central idea was that held all those authors and poets and philosophers together so that they deserved this categorical name, Transcendentalists.
And so, if you're at this page because you're having difficulty: you're not alone. Transcendentalism is, in many aspects, the first notable American intellectual movement. It has inspired succeeding generations of American intellectuals, as well as some literary movements.
Transcendentalism influenced the growing movement of "Mental Sciences" of the midth century, which would later become known as the New Thought movement. The Transcendentalist efforts in education were reincarnated both in Dewey' laboratory school and the open school movement of the s, and Brook Farm was the prototype of many of the communes of this same period.
At its core, Transcendentalism was a youth movement, making eloquently obvious one of the first generation gaps in American . Video: Transcendentalism: Impact on American Literature This video defines Transcendentalism, a literary movement of the midth century.
Authors such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman used their literary platforms to encourage Americans to transcend society's presumptions and create a personal, . Transcendental Meditation dates its origin back to the Vedic traditions of India.
The Transcendental Meditation program and the Transcendental Meditation movement originated with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of the organization, and continue beyond his death in English literature - The post-Romantic and Victorian eras: Self-consciousness was the quality that John Stuart Mill identified, in , as “the daemon of the men of genius of our time.” Introspection was inevitable in the literature of an immediately Post-Romantic period, and the age itself was as prone to self-analysis as were its individual authors.